Crystal oscillator frequency

Kostenlose Lieferung möglich. PCs, Handys, Zubehör & meh Precision Temperature Compensated Oscillators, Tight Stability Low G-Sensitivit Crystal oscillators can be manufactured for oscillation over a wide range of frequencies, from a few kilohertz up to several hundred megahertz.Many applications call for a crystal oscillator frequency conveniently related to some other desired frequency, so hundreds of standard crystal frequencies are made in large quantities and stocked by electronics distributors A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a constant frequency. [1] [2] [3] This frequency is often used to keep track of time, as in quartz wristwatches , to provide a stable clock signal for digital integrated circuits , and to stabilize frequencies for radio transmitters and receivers

The typical operating range of the crystal oscillators is from 40 KHz to 100 MHz wherein the low frequency oscillators are designed using OpAmps while the high frequency-ones are designed using the transistors (BJTs or FETs) At MHz frequencies, this start-up time is typically 10ms. At frequencies below 100kHz, a crystal oscillator may take up to a second to start up. The LTC1799 takes less than 1ms to settle within 1% of any frequency between 5kHz and 30MHz. The LTC1799 is immune to vibration and acceleration forces, another problem that plagues crystal oscillators

Crystal Oscillator - bei Amazon

  1. The crystal now acts as a parallel resonant circuit and provides very high impedance. This frequency is known as parallel resonant frequency fp. Transistor Based Crystal Oscillator: The following figure shows the transistor crystal oscillator. It is the modification of collpit's oscillator. (ie, the inductor is replaced with the crystal)
  2. The circuit frequency of oscillation is set by the series resonant frequency of the crystal and its value is given by the relation, $$f_o = \frac{1}{2\pi \sqrt{L.C}}$$ It may be noted that the changes in supply voltage, transistor device parameters etc. have no effect on the circuit operating frequency, which is held stabilized by the crystal
  3. The above figure is a 20psc New 16MHz Quartz Crystal Oscillator and it is one kind of crystal oscillators, that works with 16MHz frequency
  4. ed by the physical dimensions and by the way the crystal is cut. Some standard values for crystal oscillators are 100 kHz, 1 MHz, 2 MHz, 4 MHz, 5 MHz, and 10 MHz. The full range of values spans from 10 kHz to 30 MHz
  5. Essentially the pulling the frequency of a crystal oscillator requires the load capacitance to be changed. This will change the frequency of the oscillation, enabling it to be trimmed to the required value within the available range. The most commonly used circuit is the Colpitts oscillator

Greenray Industries Inc - AS9100, TCXO Manufacture

3# CD4060 crystal oscillator circuit This is a 1Hz oscillator circuit for a standard digital clock, frequency size 1 Hz or 2 Hz. It can be used in the normal clock circuit. It consists of IC-4060 and IC-4013, the IC-4060 single-acting Oscillator and Counter. of the frequency determined by the resistor and external capacitor Q: What is the operating frequency range of a crystal-based oscillator? A: Depending on the quartz blank's dimensions and associated oscillator, it can range from about 50 kHz and several tens of MHz. Above that, the quartz blank becomes so thin (to achieve a higher natural mechanical resonance) that it is brittle and breaks during normal use

Crystal oscillator frequencies - Wikipedi

  1. A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal to create an electrical signal with a precise frequency. Crystal Oscillator is a mid-game component with a variety of uses
  2. Primary design considerations for fundamental-mode oscillators using AT-cut crystals include load capacitance, negative resistance, startup time, frequency stability versus temperature, drive.
  3. simple crystal· controlled oscillators. A Pierce oscillator is shown at A. A Colpitts oscillator are used extensively in most receivers, where they serve in heterodyne oscillators and BFOs (beat frequency oscillators). Some receivers contain crystals for use in calibrators that provide accurate markers ev-E--0 o:r l 0.1 ~F ,6 YI J; Cl f-Oo:
  4. Frequency Domain shows you what the spectral (frequency) content of your oscillator output looks like over a given frequency range. In this domain we are using a Spectrum Analyser to look at the output of the oscillator (Fig. 1). Jitter is a method of describing the stability of an oscillator in the Time Domain. It lumps all the nois
  5. Crystal's parallel resonant frequency, fp is - Now, we can understand that the series resonant frequency is 9.20 MHz and the parallel resonant frequency is 9.23 MHz The Q factor of this crystal will be- Colpitts Crystal Oscillator. Crystal oscillator circuit constructed using bipolar transistor or various types of FETs

digitally-compensated crystal oscillator, to eliminate the TCXO. Often a simple calibration procedure is used to set the XTAL frequency to within the desired range and a simple look-up table is used to adjust it. A Programmable Crystal Oscillator (PCXO) is a combined PLL A. M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley EECS 242 p. 13/28 - p. Thus, the crystal oscillators are used for the frequency range from about 200 or 300 KHz. Series and Parallel Resonance. From the equivalent circuit of the crystal oscillator, it can be seen that the circuit has two resonant frequencies namely series and parallel resonating frequencies When frequency doubling a 50 MHz oscillator to 100 MHz in the conventional way with a doubler or PLL+divider, the phase noise increases by 6 dB. When adding two 50 MHz oscillators together like this, the phase noise adds as power, so only increases by 3dB

Crystal oscillator - Wikipedi

Crystal Oscillator Hey friends welcome to the kohiki In this article, we will learn about crystal oscillators. Now, in the previous articles, we had seen the different types of RC as well as the LC oscillators, which can be used for generating the frequencies from audio to RF range.. But in this type of oscillator, the frequency can drift due to the change in temperature or the change in the. VCXO - The Voltage-Controlled Crystal Oscillator frequency can be adjusted by an externally applied voltage. VCXOs have a wide variety of applications in frequency modulation (FM) and phase-locked-loop (PLL) systems. A varactor diode, which is essentially a variable voltage capacitor, enables voltage control of the frequency

Crystal Oscillator: Circuit, Frequency & Working Principle

  1. This video briefly explains how to influence a crystal oscillator's frequency by introducing reactive elements such as trim capacitors and inductors. This ex..
  2. als 18 4.3. Oscillator Loop Gain 19 4.4. Reduced Crystal Voltage Limits above 1 MHz 20 4.5. DC Biasing of Transistor and IC Amplifier Stages 21 4.6. Transistor High-Frequency GainLimit& 21 5. BASIC OSCILLATOR CIRCUITS 5.1. Brief Overview and Circuit Survey 25 5.2. Miller 30 5.3. Colpitts 31 5.4. Low.
  3. Depending on the crystal resonance frequency, different cuts in the crystal structure are used for the crystal blank. AT-cut crystals vibrating in thickness shear, fundamental mode are typically used for microcontroller oscillator circuits for the frequency range from 4 MHz to 40 MHz. Real-time clock oscillators with 32 kHz resonance frequency.

Crystal Oscillator - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

  1. Crystal Oscillator Aging Page 1 of 3 146-000A This technical note is to help customers specify aging of crystal oscillators. Long term frequency drift is an important characteristic of crystal oscillators and is specified by an aging requirement. If the nature of aging is not understood, aging requirements may be improperly specified
  2. The filter block sets the frequency that the oscillator will operate. This is done using an LC tuned circuit (induc-tor and capacitor) or crystal. Initially, we will look at a few basic oscillator circuits that use a LC tuned circuit. Later we will look at crystal basics and how crystal oscillators operate
  3. Crystal Oscillator Performance of the CDCLVC1310 (ESR) also called resonant resistance is the resistance of the crystal at the series resonant frequency. It does not reflect the motional resistance (R1). 2 Crystal Oscillator Performance of the CDCLVC1310 SCAA119- September 201
  4. But out of all nothing beats the efficiency and stability of a crystal based oscillator. Even microcontrollers use Crystal oscillators because of its stability and accuracy to produce clock pulses at predefined frequency. Next time you don't have to worry too much when your project demands stable square wave input
  5. Oscillator design guide for STM8AF/AL/S, STM32 MCUs and MPUs Introduction Many designers know oscillators based on Pierce-Gate topology (hereinafter referred to as From equation (4), it appears that the oscillation frequency of the crystal can be tuned by varying C. L . load capacitance

Crystal oscillator - Basics, Working, Frequency Response

  1. Oscillators are available at Mouser Electronics from industry leading manufacturers.Mouser is an authorized distributor for many oscillator manufacturers including Abracon, Crystek, CTS, ECS, Epson, Fox, IDT, Kyocera, Microchip, Silicon Labs, SiTime, TXC, & many more
  2. Crystal Oscillator Theory www.ti.com 1 Crystal Oscillator Theory 1.1 Oscillator Operation The circuit used as high frequency, high accuracy clock source for TI's low power RF products is called a Pierce Oscillator and is shown in Figure 1. The oscillator circuit consists of an inverting amplifie
  3. If, for example, a crystal oscillator is specified as +/- 100ppm what does that mean? That the exact frequency is uncertain to that degree, or that the frequency varies by that degree over norma
  4. 3# Low voltage crystal oscillator Circuit using FET. We can easily use FET and Crystal to generate the frequency as Low voltage crystal oscillator Circuit, 1.5V-10V supply. It can operate at a supply voltage to 1.5 volts only and at crystal frequency 100 kHz to 10 MHz. The crystal is connected to between the drain and gate of FET-T1 BF256
  5. This type of oscillator has limited frequency stability under differing amounts of loading and with power supply fluctuations. Temperature and component aging also cause frequency drift. So in most digital applications such as microprocessor clocking, the quartz crystal oscillator is used
  6. al frequency over changes in operating conditions. Oscillator stability is usually rated as inclusive of temperature, load, initial calibration, supply, and aging effects

The biggest selling point of quartz crystal oscillators is their ability to generate a constant frequency under varying load and temperature conditions. In a quartz crystal oscillator, when a voltage source is applied to the crystal, it undergoes mechanical perturbations which in turn generate a voltage signal of a particular frequency, also known as the resonant frequency Frequency stability is very important in radio systems with a crystal as the system frequency reference. This is especially true for narrow-channel applications at high frequency. An example would be operation in the 25kHz channel bandwidth portion of the 863MHz to 870MHz ISM band in Europe They crystal has high Q, but unfortunately at several neighbored frequencies. Lets compare a junk 5MHz AT crystal over the same frequency range: Much better. The first spur is smaller than the center frequency, and it is ca. 2.5 times more far way in frequency. This oscillator would always start at 5MHz even with coarse tuning High Reliability - Extreme Temperature Crystals, Oscillators, and Sensors for Extreme Environmental Conditions including High Shock and Vibration, Extreme Temperatures, and High Pressure. Our Crystal Oscillator Products are available in standard and custom Surface Mount (SMT, SMD) and Thru-hole packages

The frequency displayed is not super accurate, probably because the capacitors in the Colpitt oscillator rarely match what the crystal is cut for. But that is OK. All I wanted was a small unit that can oscillate and give a quick indication if a crystal is working The frequency trimming is used in a variety of different ways. 0000037803 00000 n 0000070837 00000 n Load resonance frequency of the crystal unit with the standard load capacitance Load resonance frequency (FL) is the oscillation frequency when a crystal unit is driven with an oscillator circuit that has the standard load capacitance. 0000005178 00000 n On occasions relatively large frequency. This frequency counter kit, also known as 1-Hz to 50-Hz Crystal Oscillator Tester, and DIY Digital LED 1-Hz to 50-Hz Crystal Frequency Counter Kit, is a tool that measures the frequency of quartz crystal modules usually utilised by HAM Radio enthusiasts and anyone who uses crystal modules in the field of electronics. This DIY kit of parts allows you to build a 5-digit counter that will display. The frequency accuracy of the GPSDO is essentially that of GPS, plus or minus the short term stability of the crystal oscillator. In other words, a properly operating GPSDO is probabably accurate to parts in 10 -13 , and if you measure it once per day, those measurements will be constant at about that level

Crystal Oscillators - Tutorialspoin

Low Frequency crystal oscillator Written by Hans Summers Tuesday, 14 November 2017 06:19 In about 2003 or 2004 I came across a very low frequency crystal, in a B7G glass valve (tube). These really low crystals have resonance frequencies measured in kHz not MHz. Even. firmware change to improve resolution of a popular 1Hz-50MHz Digital LED DIY Kits Crystal Oscillator Frequency Counter Tester sold on Ebay and other sites - TheHWcave/PIC-freq.counter-modificatio Andhra Electronics Ltd {Crystal Oscillators, TTL, HCMOS, PECL, Sine Wave, LVDS} Ascend Frequency Devices {Crystal Manufacturer, Thru-Hole/SMD, 1.8432MHz to 200MHz} Bliley Electric Co. {Quartz Crystal/MIL-Spec, Cold-weld Vacuum Sealed/High Stability-Blanks-Surface Mount Crystal Oscillators} Bomar {Crystal Manufacturer} Cal Crystal Lab., In Difference Between Crystal Oscillator and Frequency Synthesizer Crystal Oscillator vs Frequency Synthesizer In communication and transmission systems, you need to have a specific frequency that the transmitter and receiver will use in order to achieve the transmission of information. To achieve this you need to use something like crystal oscillators or frequency synthesizers A Crystal Oscillator is an electronic circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very precise frequency. This frequency is commonly used to keep track of time, to provide a stable clock signal for digital integrated circuits, and to stabilize frequencies for radio transmitters and receivers

Quartz crystal oscillator - Stock Image - T355/0232

Overview of Crystal Oscillator Circuit Working with

Crystal oscillators provide the clock heartbeat for processors, bit timing for data links, sampling time for data conversions, and the master frequency in tuners and synthesizers. In simplified terms, the quartz element of the crystal oscillator acts as an extremely high-Q resonant element within the feedback network of an oscillator circuit (Figure 1) Crystal Oscillator Troubleshooting Guide, Rev. 0 Crystal Overdriving 4 Freescale Semiconductor RB, also known as feedback re sistance (Rf) and shown in Figure 2, is used to bias the input of the inverting amplifier. By pulling the input of the amplifier toward the voltage at the output, an unstable condition i All available Jauch Crystal Oscillators at a glance Here you can find the suitable oscillator for your application. Whether fixed frequency oscillator (XO), temperature-compensated oscillator (TCXO) or voltage-controlled oscillator (VCXO) - all of them offer best accuracy in Jauch quality

Advantages of Crystal Oscillator They have a high order of frequency stability. The quality factor (Q) of the crystal is very high. The Q factor of the crystal may be as high as 10,000 compared to.. Another way to analyze the crystal oscillator behavior is the negative resistance concept. At the series resonant frequency, the crystal and the loads can be represented by R ESR (Figure 4.20a). This means that the crystal oscillator dissipates some of the signal power in R ESR A crystal oscillator circuit uses the voltage supplied from the crystal quartz resonator. The crystal oscillator circuit works by amplifying that voltage and then sending it back to the crystal quartz resonator. When the quartz crystal expands and contracts repeatedly, a specific resonant frequency is generated The oscillator's output is taken from the emitter of Q1 via C5 which then goes to the PIC microcontroller. This same connection is shared with the external frequency input. This means that the crystal oscillator will load any external circuit which is connected to the external input (J2) so some care may be required in some cases

Crystal and Crystal Oscillator (XO) Diodes Incorporated's Frequency Controlled Products (FCP) consists of both quartz crystal resonators and crystal oscillators. Leveraging our own in-house crystal and IC design, Diodes Incorporated provides the best-in-class crystal (Xtal) and crystal oscillators (XO) optimized for your design requirements ECS Inc. International is a privately held Global Leader in its class that is at the forefront of servicing a growing global demand for highly reliable and innovative passive components, components meeting the needs of the world today and beyond. ECS Inc. is recognized by world class research firms and electronic device designers as a top 25 worldwide developer and manufacturer of innovative. Low Jitter Crystal Oscillators (XO) Our low jitter crystal oscillators (XO) are the industry's first low jitter, any-frequency XOs, providing excellent jitter, very short lead times and high reliability, making them ideal for applications such as networking equipment, base stations, storage area networks and broadcast video systems The DS32kHz is a temperature-compensated crystal oscillator (TCXO) with an output frequency of 32.768kHz. This device addresses applications requiring better timekeeping accuracy, and can be used to drive the X1 input of most Dallas Semiconductor rea

Low Frequency Oscillator

Let's Get Crystal Clear: A Primer on the Crystal Oscillator

low frequency crystal oscillators Crystals within the range 50 kHz to 500 kHz demand distinctive factors not spotted in the more prevalent AT or BT cut HF crystals. The similar series resistance is a lot bigger and their allowable dissipation is restricted to under 100 microwatts, ideally 50 microwatts or lower The frequency tolerance of a crystal or oscillator defined as the initial deviation of a crystal or oscillator frequency when measured at 25°C. The stability over the defined operating temperature range is defined as the Frequency Deviation compared to the measured frequency at 25°C

systematic change in frequency with time of an oscillator. Drift is the sum total of crystal aging and other external and envi-ronmental factors. For this discussion, we will focus solely on crystal aging. Aging is defined as frequency change with time and generally exhibits an exponential positive, decaying frequency drift characteristic Crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator used to create an electrical signal of precise frequency by using the vibrating crystal mechanical resonance made of piezoelectric material. In our previous articles, we explain Hartley oscillators and Colpitts oscillators in brief. Here we are going to explain crystal oscillator and its circuit diagram in brief Epson High Frequency Low Jitter Crystal Oscillator SG2520EGN, SG2520EHN, SG2520VGN, SG2520VH 0 1 0 HS High Gain High frequency application. Oscillator circuit's mode consumes the most current of the three crystal modes. 0 0 1 XT Medium Gain Standard crystal/resonator frequency. Oscillator circuit's mode consumes the middle current of the three crystal modes. 0 0 0 LP Low Gain Low power/frequency applications

Crystal Resonator Frequency Pulling & Trimming

Crystal oscillator Specifications (characteristics) Item Symbol Specifications *2 Conditions / Remarks PT / ST PH / SH PC / SC Output frequency range f0 CC 1 MHz to 125 MHz -VCC = 4.5 V to 5.5 V (except SG-8002LB) - 1 MHz to 80 MHz - V = 4.5 V to 5.5 V (SG-8002LB only) - - 1 MHz to 125 MHz VCC = 3.0 V to 3.6 V - - 1 MHz to 66.7 MHz VCC = 2.7 V to 3.6 This paper describes a circuit for high frequency crystal oscillators using an AT-cut resonator in the UHF frequency range. This circuit can be built based on a conventional Colpitts oscillator circuit with a feedback capacitor between the collector terminal and the emitter terminal of a transistor. The new circuit has the characteristic features of low drive level and high negative resistance. Crystal Oscillators are made from Quartz crystal and some times mixture of other substances like Tourmaline and Rochelle salt. We know when we apply energy to the crystal it produce vibrations at natural frequency and when we apply vibration it will produce small amount of energy. This piezoelectric effect is makes Quartz crystals as unique element. This effect will help us to produce constant. Cheap Amplifier, Buy Quality Consumer Electronics Directly from China Suppliers:10MHz OCXO Crystal Oscillator Frequency Reference with Board Enjoy Free Shipping Worldwide! Limited Time Sale Easy Return HCMOS Crystal Oscillators With the advent of high speed HCMOS circuits, it is possible to build systems with clock rates of greater than 30 MHz. The familiar gate oscillator circuits used at low frequencies work well at higher frequencies and either L-C or crystal resona-tors maybe used depending on the stability required. Abov

VFO-62Colpitts Oscillator Using Proteus software - YouTubeTesting the PCF8563 RTC Oscillator - YouTube

5 Crystal oscillator Circuits using CMOS ElecCircuit

The 16 MHz Crystal Oscillator module is designed to handle off-chip crystals that have a frequency of 4Œ16 MHz. The crystal oscillator™s output is fed to the System PLL as the input refe rence. The oscillator design generates low frequency and phase jitter, which is recommended for USB operation. This document contains an overview of the on-chi Quartz crystal oscillator circuit with frequency up to 2MHz. Figures (a) and (b) show two 2MHz oscillator basic circuits. According to the circuit structure, the optimum operating point can be determined through test adjustment The MCU Series 1 or Wireless SoC Series 1 devices contain two crystal oscillators: one low frequency (32.768 kHz) and one high frequency (4-50 MHz depending on the device, see datasheet for more information). Topics covered include oscillator theory and some recommended crystals for these devices Simple Tester Provides Readout of Crystal Frequency 1. The Pierce-gate oscillator, which uses the parallel-resonance mode, is among the most common crystal-oscillator... 2. This basic test circuit is a Pierce-gate oscillator, which provides readout of crystal frequency. There are two.. TCXO (Temperature compensated crystal oscillator) is a type of crystal oscillator. TCXOs provide a stable clock signal with a temperature compensated circuit and a Crystal unit with good performance over a wide temperature range. The precision TCXO is a TCXO that achieves equivalent frequency accuracy compared to OCXOs for network infrastructures

Quartz crystals and oscillators, Part 1: Crystal basic

Or if the crystal has been dropped, it may be cracked. How to Test Crystal Oscillator. Figure 1 shows how to make a simple test to quickly determine the condition of the crystal. Normally, a crystal oscillator will oscillate at a slightly higher frequency than the crystal's series resonant point Which frequency crystal/oscillator for a STM32F microcontroller « on: August 26, 2014, 07:36:54 am » Hi I was just wondering since in the evaluation boards of ST I see a lot of different frequency oscillators, like on the F10x devices typ. 8MHz, on the F2xx devices typ. 16 or even 25MHz

Crystal Oscillator - Official Satisfactory Wik

30. The effect of a shock at t = t, on oscillator frequency. 34 31. Crystal oscillator's response to a pulse of ionizing radiation: f, = original preirradiation frequency, Af, = steady-state frequency offset (0.2 hours to 24 hours after exposure), f, = instantaneous frequency at time t. 35 32 Crystal oscillators are handy devices that consist of a quartz crystal and the additional circuitry needed to generate a standard digital clock signal. and the vast majority of the parts are within .05% of the nominal frequency: Silicon oscillators are more reliable than crystals and ceramic resonators,. Frequency Electronics, Inc. 3,600 Hz crystal oscillator with frequency trim adjustment. No other information is available. 1-1/4 x 3 x 4. $50 each. Oscillator 7.987200 MHz. Enlarge Image (OSC) 970-3289-18. CTS Knights.

Figure 3TXC - Crystals, Oscillators, MEMS, Filters (SAW), XO, VCXO

A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a precise frequency. [1][2][3] This frequency is commonly used to keep track of time, as in quartz wristwatches, t Capacitor Ce and, if present, capacitor Cbe, can be integrated into the oscillator, the only external component then being the quartz crystal, or they can be external capacitors to enable the user to modify the central oscillation frequency, that is, the oscillation frequency for a phase-shift equal to the central phase-shift of the variation range of circuit 11 Oven controlled crystal oscillators featuring exceptional phase noise, fast warm-up time, low power consumption, tight frequency stability, excellent long-term stability, El. frequency tuning input, reference voltage output and small CO-8 or SMD package. We can also customize this VCOs according to your specific requirements

  • Alicante nov.
  • Mezzrow's kennel.
  • Alkohol och prostatacancer.
  • Generate ed25519 SSH key.
  • Börsen öppettider.
  • Loppis Skellefteå.
  • Lorem Ipsum copy paste.
  • Mixa bönor i soppa.
  • Augsburg heute Fußball.
  • Så mycket bättre säsong 2020.
  • Yaya Toure best season.
  • Cykelkorg 24 tum.
  • K rauta bromma stänger.
  • Psalm 10 svenska psalmboken.
  • ALDI Süd Prospekt.
  • Visit Graceland.
  • Euro U21 2019 wiki.
  • P3 Dokumentär bästa.
  • Facebook Gruppe Titelbild Größe.
  • Mini aussie doodle black.
  • Boende Sundsvall stuga.
  • Italiensk restaurang Mölndal.
  • Ortopediska skor diabetes.
  • Smärta insida vad.
  • Pussel 200 bitar.
  • Småkakor 7 sorters kakor.
  • Bokio Löneprogram.
  • Kickis städ Sundsvall.
  • Club tumbler Glas Sagaform.
  • Energieffektivisering fastigheter.
  • Byggbeskrivning lusthus.
  • 500 Euro Gutschein Gewinnspiel.
  • Upplysningen SO rummet.
  • Piñata Kindergeburtstag.
  • Gyrokopter utbildning pris.
  • Komvux Göteborg Logga in.
  • B celler funktion.
  • Svensk Digital Handel.
  • Landsänkning Skåne.
  • Translation software for PC.
  • Wedding photo sharing app reviews.